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Optimal Tilt Angle for Solar Panels by EU Cities

Learn what the optimal solar panel tilt angles for top 67 EU cities are. Create more accurate systems or verify your work with our detailed list.

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    Introduction

    Harnessing the abundant energy of the sun is an effective and efficient way to move towards sustainable living. But to make the most out of solar panel systems, they need to be angled optimally. The tilt of a solar panel can significantly impact its performance, and the best angle differs based on geographical location. In short, if you are in the northern-hemisphere you want to point your panels 180 south, and the opposite in you are in the southern-hemisphere.

    Here is a detailed list, alphabetically ordered, of the top 67 populous cities in the European Union, along with their optimal solar panel tilt angles:

    1. Amsterdam, Netherlands: 52°
    2. Antwerp, Belgium: 51°
    3. Athens, Greece: 38°
    4. Barcelona, Spain: 41°
    5. Berlin, Germany: 52°
    6. Bilbao, Spain: 43°
    7. Birmingham, United Kingdom: 52°
    8. Bochum, Germany: 51°
    9. Bologna, Italy: 44°
    10. Bonn, Germany: 51°
    11. Bordeaux, France: 44°
    12. Bremen, Germany: 53°
    13. Bristol, United Kingdom: 51°
    14. Brussels, Belgium: 51°
    15. Bucharest, Romania: 44°
    16. Budapest, Hungary: 47°
    17. Cologne, Germany: 51°
    18. Copenhagen, Denmark: 55°
    19. Dortmund, Germany: 51°
    20. Dresden, Germany: 51°
    21. Dublin, Ireland: 53°
    22. Düsseldorf, Germany: 51°
    23. Edinburgh, United Kingdom: 56°
    24. Essen, Germany: 51°
    25. Frankfurt, Germany: 50°
    26. Gdańsk, Poland: 54°
    27. Genoa, Italy: 44°
    28. Glasgow, United Kingdom: 56°
    29. Gothenburg, Sweden: 57°
    30. Hamburg, Germany: 53°
    31. Hannover, Germany: 52°
    32. Helsinki, Finland: 60°
    33. Kraków, Poland: 50°
    34. Leeds, United Kingdom: 54°
    35. Leipzig, Germany: 51°
    36. Lille, France: 51°
    37. Lisbon, Portugal: 39°
    38. Liverpool, United Kingdom: 53°
    39. London, United Kingdom: 51°
    40. Lyon, France: 45°
    41. Madrid, Spain: 40°
    42. Malaga, Spain: 36°
    43. Manchester, United Kingdom: 53°
    44. Marseille, France: 43°
    45. Milan, Italy: 45°
    46. Munich, Germany: 48°
    47. Naples, Italy: 41°
    48. Nice, France: 43°
    49. Nuremberg, Germany: 49°
    50. Oslo, Norway: 60°
    51. Palermo, Italy: 38°
    52. Paris, France: 49°
    53. Prague, Czech Republic: 50°
    54. Rome, Italy: 42°
    55. Rotterdam, Netherlands: 52°
    56. Seville, Spain: 37°
    57. Sheffield, United Kingdom: 53°
    58. Sofia, Bulgaria: 43°
    59. Stockholm, Sweden: 59°
    60. Stuttgart, Germany: 49°
    61. The Hague, Netherlands: 52°
    62. Turin, Italy: 45°
    63. Valencia, Spain: 39°
    64. Vienna, Austria: 48°
    65. Warsaw, Poland: 52°
    66. Zaragoza, Spain: 41°
    67. Zurich, Switzerland: 47°

    Optimal Solar Panel Angle (Table)

    With this table at hand, you have a ready reference to understand the optimal tilt angles for solar panels across the major cities in the European Union. Remember, these angles are estimates and may vary based on specific circumstances and weather conditions. Always seek professional advice when installing solar panels to ensure maximum efficiency and safety.

    CityCountryOptimal Tilt Angle (°)
    AmsterdamNetherlands52
    AntwerpBelgium51
    AthensGreece38
    BarcelonaSpain41
    BerlinGermany52
    BilbaoSpain43
    BirminghamUnited Kingdom52
    BochumGermany51
    BolognaItaly44
    BonnGermany51
    BordeauxFrance44
    BremenGermany53
    BristolUnited Kingdom51
    BrusselsBelgium51
    BucharestRomania44
    BudapestHungary47
    CologneGermany51
    CopenhagenDenmark55
    DortmundGermany51
    DresdenGermany51
    DublinIreland53
    DüsseldorfGermany51
    EdinburghUnited Kingdom56
    EssenGermany51
    FrankfurtGermany50
    GdańskPoland54
    GenoaItaly44
    GlasgowUnited Kingdom56
    GothenburgSweden57
    HamburgGermany53
    HannoverGermany52
    HelsinkiFinland60
    KrakówPoland50
    LeedsUnited Kingdom54
    LeipzigGermany51
    LilleFrance51
    LisbonPortugal39
    LiverpoolUnited Kingdom53
    LondonUnited Kingdom51
    LyonFrance45
    MadridSpain40
    MalagaSpain36
    ManchesterUnited Kingdom53
    MarseilleFrance43
    MilanItaly45
    MunichGermany48
    NaplesItaly41
    NiceFrance43
    NurembergGermany49
    OsloNorway60
    PalermoItaly38
    ParisFrance49
    PragueCzech Republic50
    RomeItaly42
    RotterdamNetherlands52
    SevilleSpain37
    SheffieldUnited Kingdom53
    SofiaBulgaria43
    StockholmSweden59
    StuttgartGermany49
    The HagueNetherlands52
    TurinItaly45
    ValenciaSpain39
    ViennaAustria48
    WarsawPoland52
    ZaragozaSpain41
    ZurichSwitzerland47

    It’s important to remember that this list provides the optimal tilt angles, not necessarily the angle you should use. Depending on the specifics of your location and setup, you may need to adjust the angle to optimize energy production. Please consult with a local solar energy professional for personalized advice.

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